Pale Straw, Amber or Honey Urine Color – Generally means that you are either drinking a lot of fluid, or you are taking a diuretic drug that forces the body to get rid of excess water.
Darker Urine Color – Usually a sign that you’re not drinking enough fluid. Your body requires a certain amount of fluid to function, so the body will hold on to fluid and the urine will become very strong and concentrated. When that happens, it will turn a darker color.
Black – Causes can include nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, cascara or senna laxatives, methocarbamol, sorbitol, and the phenol derivative cresol. Intramuscular iron injections are also associated with black urine as a benign effect of the medication.
Blue – The medical condition hypercalcemia (blue diaper syndrome) can cause blue urine, as can Hartnup disease.
Dark Brown or Cola – Can be caused by drugs such as chloroquine and primaquine, antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitrofurantoin, laxatives containing cascara or senna, and methocarbamol. Muscle injury from extreme exercise can result in pink or cola-colored urine and kidney damage. Eating a lot of fava beans, rhubarb or aloe can also be a cause of dark brown urine. In addition some liver and kidney disorders can turn urine dark brown, as can some urinary tract infections.
Transparent – If your pee is completely clear, it may be a sign that you are drinking too much water. In general, if you’re drinking so much that your urine looks like water, you probably are drinking more than you need.
White, Cloudy or Murky Urine (Albinuria) – Urinary tract infections (UTI) and/or kidney stones can cause your urine to appear cloudy or murky. Chyluria is another possible diagnosis. Chyluria, also called chylous urine, is a medical condition involving the presence of chyle in the urine stream, which results in urine appearing milky white. It is a condition that is more prevalent among people of Africa and the Indian subcontinent.
Green – Some bright colored food dyes can cause your urine to appear green. In addition, some medications produce blue or green urine, including amitriptyline, indomethacin (Indocin) and propofol (Diprivan). Green urine sometimes occurs during urinary tract infections caused by pseudomonas bacteria.
Orange – In some cases, orange urine can indicate a problem with your liver or bile duct, especially if you also have light-colored stools. Medications that can turn urine orange include rifampin; the anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine (Azulfidine); phenazopyridine (Pyridium), a drug that numbs urinary tract discomfort; some laxatives; and certain chemotherapy drugs. Orange urine may also be caused by dehydration.
Purple – The only known cause of purple urine is purple urine bag syndrome. Purple urine is associated with Gram-negative bacteruria and typically resolves after treatment with antibiotics and changing the catheter.
Reddish Orange – Medications Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) and Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) can turn urine a reddish orange color.
Red or Pink – Some foods such as beets (beetroot), blackberries and rhubarb are known to turn your urine a red or pink color. Medications such as Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), phenazopyridine (Pyridium), and laxatives containing senna can also turn urine reddish orange color. However, you could have blood in your urine, factors that can cause urinary blood (hematuria) include urinary tract infections, enlarged prostate (Urine Test for Prostate Cancer), cancerous and non-cancerous tumors, kidney cysts, long-distance running, and kidney or bladder stones. Note, it only takes a single drop of blood to turn the toilet bowl water red.
Most of the time, urine does not have a strong smell if you are healthy and drink plenty of fluids. The smell of your urine usually is not such a direct indicator of a disease, it is more of an indicator of foods you have recently eaten or medications you may be taking.
The consumption of products such as saffron, alcohol, coffee, tuna fish, and onion can result in various urine “scents”. Spicy foods can often have a similar effect, as their compounds pass through the kidneys without being fully broken down before exiting your body.
Foul-smelling urine – May be due to bacteria.
Sweet-smelling urine – May be a sign of uncontrolled diabetes or a rare disease of metabolism.
Musty – Liver disease and certain metabolic disorders may cause musty-smelling urine.
Sweet – Diabetics often report that their urine smells sweet, this is because of excess sugar in the body.
Other – Some food types can change the odor of your urine – asparagus is one of the most common reported.
Sometimes your urine may look foamier than usual. This may be a result of urinating with more force than usual, or it can occasionally be an indicator of a health-related symptom, a sign of protein in the urine, which can be a sign of a kidney problem.
NOTE: If you are ever the least bit concerned regarding the color, odor, or consistency of your urine, ask your doctor to perform a urine analysis. It is especially important to see your doctor if you think there is blood in your urine, or you are passing dark brown urine and pale colored stools and have a yellowish tinge to your skin and eyes. You should also see your doctor if you cannot explain the unusual color of your urine as resulting from a food, as a side effect of a medication, or from being dehydrated.